Here is a working list of sources cited in our essays about Lean Risk Management for Nonprofits.


Ariely, Daniel. Predictably Irrational (2010).

Ariely, Daniel. The (Honest) Truth About Dishonesty (2013).

Beasley, Mark. “Increasing Risk Awareness for Mission Critical Objectives of Not-for-Profit Organizations,” American Institute for Certified Public Accountants, Not-For-Profit Brief (March 22, 2011).

Bell, Megan E., and Tomer J. Inbar. Cybersecurity & Nonprofits: A Matter of Time? Data Security Law Blog (Nov. 18, 2015) [available at].

Bilich, Ted. “Boards and Nonprofit Risk Management,” Risk Management Monitor (Sept. 1, 2015) [available at].

Bolton, Peter. “Nonprofit Employers DOn’t Meet Workers’ Needs for Job Satisfaction, Surveys Find,” The Chronicle of Philanthropy (Oct. 24, 2011) [available at]

Bowman, Woods. “Nonprofit Accountability and Ethics: Rotting from the Head Down,” Nonprofit Quarterly (Oct. 26, 2012) [available at].

Braemer, Christian. “Philanthropy: The New Risk Capital?” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Oct. 23, 2015) [available at].

Buteau, Ellie, Andrea Brock, and Mark Chaffin, “Nonprofit Challenges: What Foundations Can Do” (Center for Effective Philanthropy, 2013), 6.

Case Foundation, “The Pros and Cons of Working in the Nonprofit Sector” (Feb. 17, 2011) [available at]

Cheke, Anthony S. “The Dodo’s Last Island,” Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (2004) [available at]

Columbia Center for Career Education, “Private Sector vs. Not-for-profit Sector” (2016) [available at]

Cohen, Rick. “Nonprofit Salaries: Achieving Parity with the Private Sector,” Nonprofit Quarterly (June 21, 2010) [available at]

Conant, Doug. “Why Philanthropy Is R&D for Business,” McKinsey Commentary (Sept. 2013) [available at].

Cornelius, Marla, and Patrick Corvington, Nonprofit Workforce Dynamics, in Lester M. Salamon (ed.), The State of Nonprofit America (2d ed. 2012), p. 640; 647.

Criminal Justice Caucus, “Review of ‘No One Wants to Work with Me: Working with Difficult Populations” Workshop (Apr. 17, 2012) [available at]

Decker, Al, and Donna Galer, Enterprise Risk Management: Straight to the Point (2013): 41.

District of Columbia Bar, A Nonprofit’s Guide to Risk Management and Insurance at 3 (Joint Publication of Public Counsel and DC Bar Pro Bono Program) (2013).

Dunning, David. “We Are All Confident Idiots,” Pacific Standard (Oct. 27, 2014) [available at]

Drucker, Peter. People and Performance: The Best of Peter Drucker on Management (1977): 33.

Edmondson, Catie. “Queens Library Scandal Spurs Nonprofit Oversight Bill,” Gotham Gazette (Jul. 28, 2015) (noting calls for greater regulation after firing of nonprofit executive accused of “lavish spending on pricy meals, alcohol, and furniture at the same time the library cut staff”) [available at].

Festinger, Leo. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957): 33-45.

Francis, Angela, and Jennifer Talansky, “Small Nonprofits Solving Big Problems (Nonprofit Finance Fund, 2012), 10.

Frostenson, Sarah, and Megan O’Neil. “10 Companies That Gave the Most in 2013,” Chronicle of Philanthropy (July 13, 2014) (noting that top ten corporate givers each gave more than $100 million to charitable causes in 2013) [available at].

Fungston, Frederick, and Stephen Wagner. Surviving and Thriving in Uncertainty (2010): 54; 250-51.

Garvey, David. “Nonprofit Sector: Workforce Education Needs and Opportunities,” 73 Continuing Higher Education Review 114, 119 (2009).

George, Michael. Lean Six Sigma for Service (2003).

Georgia Center for Nonprofits, “Engaging the Nonprofit Workforce: Mission, Management and Emotion at 12 (2011) [available at]

Gibbons-Neff, Thomas. “Wounded Warrior Project Executives Fired amid Controversy,” Washington Post (March 10, 2016) [available at].

Gilbert, Daniel. Stumbling on Happiness (2006): 114.

Goggins Gregory, Ann, and Don Howard, “The Nonprofit Starvation Cycle,” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Fall 2009) [available at].

Gray, Jeff. “Toronto Goodwill Moving Forward with Bankruptcy, CEO to Step Down,” Globe and Mail (Feb. 29, 2016) [available at].

Green, Kevin. “Women Plead Guilty to Defrauding USDA Summer Program” (Feb 4, 2016) [available at].

Haidt, Jonathan. The Righteous Mind (2011).

Herman, Melanie L., George L. Head, Peggy M. Jackson, and Toni E. Fogarty. Managing Risk in Nonprofit Organizations (2004).

Herman, Melanie L. Ready or Not: A Risk Management Guide for Nonprofit Executives (2d ed. 2011).

Herzlinger, Regina E. “Effective Oversight,” in Harvard Business Review on Nonprofits (1994): 42.

Hubbard, Douglas. The Failure of Risk Management (2009): 80; 99-101; 104.

Hubbard, Douglas, How to Measure Anything (2010):

Human Services Corporation of New York, “New York Nonprofits in the Aftermath of FEGS: A Call to Action,” at 5 (2016) [available at].

Heuer, R. Richards. The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis (1999): 5; 7; 17-18; 119; 124; 132-33; 147; 157; 138.

Hiscox USA, The 2015 Hiscox Embezzlement Watchlist (2015): 2.

Independent Sector Principles for Good, Principle 6 (2015).

Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open (2004): 150.

Jonker, Kim, and William F. Meehan III, “Fundamentals, Not Fads,” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Spring 2014) [available at]

Kearns, Kevin P. Accountability in the Nonprofit Sector, in Lester M. Salamon (ed.), The State of Nonprofit America (2d ed. 2012): 587-610.

Klein, Paul. “The Coming End of Corporate Philanthropy, and How You Can Prepare,” Forbes (July 9, 2014) [available at].

Korngold, Alice. “Nonprofit Boards: On Saying No to Problem Board Members.” Fast Company (March 18, 2011) [available at]

Krafcik, John. “Triumph of the Lean Production System,” Sloan Management Review (Fall 1988) [available at]

Leap of Reason, “The Performance Imperative: A Framework for Social-Sector Excellence,” Leap of Reason Ambassadors Community [available at], licensed under CC BY ND

Leonberger, Katie, “A Perfect Storm for Nonprofits: Risk Engagement Is Critical,” Philantopic News Digest (December 20, 2017) [available at]

Landles-Cobb, Libbie, Kirk Kramer, and Katie Smith Milway. “The Nonprofit Leadership Development Deficit,” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Oct. 22, 2015) [available at]

Larcker, David, Nicholas Donatiello, Bill Meehan, and Brian Tayan, “2015 Survey on Board of Directors of Nonprofit Organizations” [available at]

Levy, Sue-Ann, “No Accountability as Goodwill Creditors Left High and Dry,” Toronto Sun (March 3, 2016) [available at].

Liker, Jeffrey, and Karyn Ross. The Toyota Way to Service Excellence (2017).

Liker, Jeffrey, and David Meier. The Toyota Way Fieldbook (2006).

Manley, Paula. Nonprofit Lifestages and Why They Matter (2007) [available at].

Manzo, Peter. “The Real Salary Scandal,” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Winter 2004) [available at]

Matray, Margaret. “Daughter, Mother Who Ran Suffolk Nonprofit, Send Thee Community Outreach, Charged With Fraud” (Oct. 16, 2015) [available at].

McCambridge, Ruth. “The FEGS Autopsy: Bad Nonprofit Business in a Tough Operating Environment,” Nonprofit Quarterly (Feb. 26, 2016) [available at].

McElhatton, Jim. “D.C. Nonprofit Can’t Say How It Spent $25M,” Washington Times (Feb. 20, 2011) (noting issues relating to charity tied to investigation of D.C. council member) [available at].

Milway, Katie Smith, Maria Orozco, and Christina Botero. “Why Nonprofit Mergers Continue to Lag.” Stanford Social Innovation Review (Spring 2014) [available at]

Miller, Jon, Mike Wroblewski, and Jaime Villafuerte, Creating a Kaizen Culture (2014).

Mintz, Joshua. “Risky Business: Why All Nonprofits Should Periodically Assess Their Risk,” Nonprofit Quarterly (May 8, 2012) [available at]

Modig, Niklas, and Par Ahlstrom. This Is Lean (2017).

Nagourney, Adam. “Madonna’s Charity Fails in Bid to Finance School, New York Times (March 24, 2011) (noting “what auditors described as outlandish expenditures on salaries, cars, office space and a golf course membership, free housing and a car and driver for the school’s director”) [available at].

Nonprofit Finance Fund, “State of the Nonprofit Sector Survey (2015) [available at]

Nonprofit Times, “Job Satisfaction Up, Majority Still Not Thrilled” (Sept. 9, 2015) [available at]

O’Flanagan, Maisie, Jacob Herold, and Paul Brest. “The Nonprofit Marketplace: Bridging the Information Gap in Philanthropy” (2008) [available at]

O’Rourke, Morgan. “The Challenges of Nonprofit Risk Management,” Risk Management Magazine (Aug. 1, 2013) (noting “only 22% of nonprofit organizations have a dedicated risk manager on staff”) [available at].

Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo. Inevitable Illusions (1994): 120; 134.

Preston, Caroline. “Rethinking Corporate Giving: Western Union’s CEO Offers Her Philosophy,” Chronicle of Philanthropy (June 3, 2010) (quoting Western Union CEO’s approach to nonprofit giving: “We evaluate our nonprofit relationships with the same level of due diligence that we use to assess potential business allies”) [available at].

Ropeik, David, and George Gray. Risk (2002): 15; 17-18.

Salamon, Lester M. The Resilient Sector: The Future of Nonprofit America,” in Lester M. Salamon (ed.), The State of Nonprofit America (2d ed. 2012): 8; 31; 47; 81; 88.

Salls, Manda. “Why Nonprofits Have a Board Problem,” Harvard Business School Working Knowledge (April 4, 2005) [available at]

Savage, Sam. The Flaw of Averages (2012): 126.

Schmidt, Elizabeth. “Rediagnosing ‘Founder’s Syndrome’: Moving Beyond Stereotypes to Improve Nonprofit Performance.” Nonprofit Quarterly (July 1, 2013) [available at]

Schwartz, Peter. The Art of the Long View (1991): 6.

Scott, Susan. Fierce Conversations (2004): 6.

Segal, Sim. The Corporate Value of Enterprise Risk Management (2011): 19.

Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline (1990).

Simon, Judith Sharken, and J. Terence Donovan. Five Stages of Nonprofit Organizations (2001): 45-63.

Standards for Excellence®: An Ethics and Accountability Code for the Nonprofit Sector, Finance and Operations, Subsection E (Risk Management and Insurance) (2014).

Stephens, Joe, and Mary Pat Flaherty. “Inside the Hidden World of Thefts, Scams, and Phantom Purchases at the Nation’s Nonprofits” (Oct. 26, 2013) [available at].

Suzuki, Shunryu. Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind (1999): 21.

Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. Antifragile (2012): 74-75.

Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. The Black Swan (2007): xvii.

Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. Fooled By Randomness (2004).

Tavris, Carol, and Elliot Aronson, Mistakes Were Made (but not by me) (2007): 18; 42; 43; 57-58; 70; 228; 230.

Utah Food Bank Responds to Possible Data Security Incident, Press Release (Aug. 31, 2015) [available at].

Venegas, Carlos. Flow in the Office (2007): 10.

Womack, James, Daniel Jones, and Daniel Roos. The Machine That Changed the World (1990).

Womack, James, and Daniel T. Jones. Lean Solutions (2005).

Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal (1994): 285; 320.

Young, Dennis R., Lester M. Salamon, and Mary Clark Grinsfelder, “Commercialization, Social Ventures, and For-Profit Competition,” in Lester M. Salamon (ed.), The State of Nonprofit America (2d ed. 2012): 525.

Zakaras, Michael. “The Importance of Recognizing and Embracing the Risks of Philanthropy,” Forbes (Apr. 12, 2014) [available at].